Wednesday, 20 February 2013

Preposition-अव्यय. ऊपर-बाद-बिना-साथ . etc.

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Below is list of prepositions i.e.अव्यय in Marathi 

English Preposition
हिन्दी अव्यय
मराठी अव्यय
Transliteration
about
बारे में
बद्दल
baddal
Above
ऊपर
वर
var
across
पार
पलिकडे
palikaDe
after
बाद
नंतर
naMtar
against
खिलाफ
विरुद्ध
viruddh
Among
बीच में
मध्ये
madhye
Around
चारों ओर
भोवती
bhovatI
As/ like
तरह
सारखा
sArakhA
aside
बाजू
बाजुला
bAjulA
Before
पहले
आधी
AdhI
below
नीचे
खाली
khAlI
for
लिए
साठी
sAThI
From /since
बाद से
पासून / कडून
pAsUn / kaDUn
in/At
(*Refer note below) 
में
आत /  
At / t
outside
बाहर
बाहेर
bAher
till / untill
तक / जब तक
पर्यंत
paryaMt
without
बिना
शिवाय
shivAy
behind
पीछे
मागे
mAge
during
दौरान
दरम्यान
daramyAn
Near /close to
पास
जवळ
javaL
towards
ओर
दिशेने
dishene
with
साथ
सोबत / बरोबर
sobat / barobar
Instead of
बजाय
ऐवजी
aivajI
On behalf of
ओर से
वतीने
vatIne
In front of
पहले
समोर
samor
Prior to
सामने
पूर्वी
pUrvI
Because of
वजह से
मुळे
muLe
According to
अनुसार
अनुसार / प्रमाणे
anusAr / pramANe
Through
माध्यम से
मधून
madhUn
With
साथ
शी
shI

Example :-


भारतके बारे में ( bhAratake bAre meM )
भारताबद्दल ( bhAratAbaddal )

कुर्सीके ऊपर ( kursIke Upar )
खुर्चीवर ( khurchIvar )

समंदर पार ( samaMdar pAr )
समुद्रापलिकडे ( samudrApalikaDe )

मेरे खिलाफ ( mere khilAph )
माझ्या विरुद्ध ( mAjhyA viruddh )

हमारे बीच में ( hamAre bIch meM )
आपल्यामध्ये ( aapalyAmadhye )

पेड की तरह ( peD kI taraha )
झाडासारखा ( jhADAsArakhA )

उसके बिना ( usake binA )
त्याच्या शिवाय ( tyAchyA shivAy )

अंग्रेजी माध्यम से ( aMgrejI mAdhyam se )
इंग्रजीमधून ( iMgrajImadhUn )

बंगले के पीछे ( baMgale ke pIChe )
बंगल्यामागे ( baMgalyAmAge )

Another Style. Extension of above
As we had seen in previous post, when preposition is used with pronoun the words become त्याच्यासाठी (tyAchyAsAThI), तीच्यामुळे(tIchyAmuLe), त्यांच्यानंतर (tyAMchyAnaMtar ) etc. As you can see there is च्या (chyA) in every word. Because of this some people tend to use च्या( chyA ) before every preposition when used along with noun. 
e.g. 
For fort -> किल्ल्यासाठी  (killyAsAThI )   or किल्ल्याच्यासाठी  (killyAchyAsAThI )
On bucket -> बादलीवर  (badalIvar )      or बादलीच्यावर (badalIchyAvar)
Under table -> टेबलाखाली  (TebalAkhAlI ) or टेबलाच्याखाली  (TebalAchyAkhAlI )


Both ways are right, but try to use first way i.e. without adding च्या (chyA) to preposition 


Note for preposition In/at
In table it is written as आत/ (At/t )
When you are using च्या( chyA ) with सामान्य रूप (sAmAnya rUp); we use word "आत(At)"
But if we do not use च्या( chyA )  then we just append "त(t)" to word form.
e.g.
In/At fort -> किल्ल्या  (killyAsAThI )  or किल्ल्याच्या आत  (killyAchyAsAThI )
In/At bucket -> बादली  (badalIvar )  or बादलीच्या आत (badalIchyAvar) etc.

For "at home" we generally say घरात (gharAt) or a special way as घरी(gharI).

So some people may ask; "what is the difference between “आत” and “ई”? 
To be precise; "आत" is used to indicate position "inside" and "ई” is used to indicate preposition "at"
e.g. 
Gold is hidden inside home ->

सोना घर के अंदर छुपाया है (sonA ghara ke aMdar ChupAyA hai )
सोने घरात पुरले आहे. (sone gharAt purale Ahe)

Tomorrow I am at home -> 

कल मैं घरपर हूं (kal maiM gharapar hUM)
उद्या मी घरी आहे (udyA mI gharI Ahe)
But you can find both forms used invariably. 

In very few cases "वर"(var) is also used to indicate preposition "at". There is no precise rule when people prefer "वर"(var). But as per my observation when they are giving not-so-precise information or indicating a surrounding they use "वर"(var).
e.g.
I saw John at the airport -> 

मैने जॉनको एअरपोर्टपर देखा (maine j~onako earaporTapar dekhA)
मी जॉनला एअरपोर्टवर/विमानतळावर बघितलं (mI j~onalA earaporTavar/vimAnataLAvar baghitalaM)

Ladies met at village well -> 

महिलाएं गांव के कुंएपर मिली (mahilAeM gAMva ke kuMepar milI)
बायका गावाच्या विहिरीवर भेटल्या (bAyakA gAvAchyA vihirIvar bheTalyA)


Children are playing at/nearby river -> 
बच्चें नदी के पास खेल रहे है  (bachcheM nadI ke pAs khel rahe hai )
मुले नदीवर खेळत आहेत (mule nadIvar kheLat Ahet)

So more you read Marathi you may get more examples. 



Grammar note 
Prepositions that is अव्यय behave same way in Marathi as well as Hindi.

In Hindi before appending preposition, the form of verb is changed. e.g
E.g. word "बॅंक खाता" is used as "बॅंक खातेमे","बॅंक खातेसे". Here form of word "खाता" was changed to "खाते" before appending अव्यय "मे","से" etc. 

This form "खाता" is nothing but सामान्य रूप of noun खाता. Same thing happens in Marathi. All prepositions are appended to सामान्य रूप of noun

सामान्य रूप of pronouns/सर्वनाम are explained here :-
http://kaushiklele-learnmarathi.blogspot.in/2012/05/prepositions.html

सामान्य रूप of common nouns are explained here :-

http://kaushiklele-learnmarathi.blogspot.in/2012/05/working-with-nouns-prepositions.html

You may skip grammar details, but then keep keen eye while reading or listening Marathi to understand these rules by example. 

Listen examples online at
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hfO7kG29NiM

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Note :-  Right hand side of the blog shows "Blog Archive". Expand it fully to see whole list of posts discussing many aspects of grammar and Marathi language
**************************************************************

8 comments:

  1. This comment has been removed by the author.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Please read the "Grammar note" once again it will clear the concept.
      e.g. मेरे खिलाफ ( mere khilAph )
      Here pronoun is मी (mI) and its सामान्य रूप is माझ्या (mAjhyA )
      So compete word becomes :- माझ्या विरुद्ध ( mAjhyA viruddh )

      What do you think is wrong here ? Please explain in detail. I will be happy to rectify.

      Delete
  2. Thanks for your prompt response and suggestion. I think i might be mistaking as above in lieu of not undestanding completely. But i must say that this work of your and the scientific way you have adopted in explaining is highly appreciable and a must recommendable work. Can you further suggest me a best marathi- hindi dictionary?

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Welcome ! Thanks a lot for appreciation.

      In your previous comment you had said there are many mistakes here. So did my explanation answer all your queries or you still see any mistakes ?

      khandbahale.com , shabkosh.com are good dictionaries.

      I would like to hear more feedback from you about my blog.
      Can you please mail me at learnmarathifast@gmail.com

      Delete
  3. मैंने इंटरनेट पर मराठी सीखने की कई कोशिश की पर कोई अच्छी साइट नहीं मिली। मगर आपका ब्लाग देखा तो आनन्द आ गया। बहुत अच्छा काम किया है आपने। इसको पुस्तक रूप में भी छपवाएं। मेरे विचार से बिकनी चाहिए। रेलवे स्टेशन पर रखी जाय तो बहुत सारे लोग जो मुम्बई आते हैं बाहर से उनके लिए बहुत मदद होगी।

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. नमस्कार अभयजी.
      आपने की हुई सराहना पाकर खुशी हुई. रेल्वे स्टेशन पर पुस्तक रखनेकी आपकी कल्पनाभी बहुत अच्छी है. मैं जरूर इसपर विचार करूंगा. मुझे आपके मराठी सिखने और मेरे वेबसाईट के बारेमें अधिक जानना अच्छा लगेगा. क्या आप मुझे learnmarathifast@gmail.com इस ईमेल आयडी पर मेल करेंगे

      धन्यवाद,
      कौशिक

      Delete
  4. Kaushik Ji, I am reading your blog to learn Marathi and I have found it very useful. Nevertheless, I must that this particular article is a bit confusing. I would request you try to organize it more. There are many confusions relating to what vibhakti we have to use and the example sentences which you have used add to the confusion. Please give simpler sentences and if possible try to give a detailed article on Vibhakti also.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Hi Mridul,
      Thanks a lot for feedback.

      There is no vibhakti. It is samanyroop. Please refer the links given in "Grammar note" to know details of it. Once you understand that, you will be able to relate those concepts here.

      Let me know if that helps. I will surely like to improve my contents if it still causes confusion.

      I would like to hear more about your experience of my blog and your Marathi learning. Can you please mail me at learnmarathifast@gmail.com

      Thanks,
      Kaushik

      Delete